Journal: Folia Historiae Artium Publisher: () Polska Akademia Nauk * Oddzial w Krakowie ISSN (P) ISSN (L) There are no additional. Shelfmark: Universitätsbibliothek Heidelberg, ZST C. Title: Folia Historiae Artium, T. 9 (). Contributor: Dobrowolski, Tadeusz ( ), Polska Akademia Nauk. Oddział w Krakowie. Komisja Teorii i Historii.

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Luther spent almost the entire heretic period of his life in Wittenberg, a city located in the Saxon province, whose population barely exceeded two thousand inhabitants. Haag, Freiburg im Breisgau, The title of the present review paraphrases the formulation by which Martin Luther defined the proper way of addressing the Virgin Mary in the Protestant Church. Hrachovec, Maria honoranda, non adoranda.

These images usually fairly faithfully reproduced the external traits of Luther s physiognomy, but overemphasised the characteristics of his personality, thus imposing on the viewer and reader specific judgements of the role of this theologian in the history of Christianity.

This likeness is an almost identical copy of Luther s well-known portrait painted by Lucas Cranach the Elderwhich shows the Reformer wearing a black gown and a biretta. However, it differs from its model in the arrangement of Luther s left hand, supporting the Bible, and of his right, shown in the gesture reminiscent of blessing. Thus, Schorn made the Reformer look like Christ, apparently intending to demonstrate, through this almost blasphemous gesture, that Luther had been the true disciple and follower of the Saviour 4, a fact that was particularly telling when his image was being viewed by the pope, whom the Wittenberg theologian and the majority of supporters of the Reformation considered to be Antichrist.

Rebel in an Age of Upheaval, trans. Johnston, New York,pp S.

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Orte der Reformation, Leipzig,passim. Ilg, Zur Vorstellung, pp as in note 1.

Herms, Offenbarung und Glaube. Treu, Luther zwischen Kunst as in note 9 The confrontation of Paul III with Luther s portrait was most likely Schorn s own licentia historica, but attempts at bringing the Reformer to life by means of his like nesses were fairly frequent in various European countries in the sixteenth century.

One of such images was owned, for example, by Cardinal Bembo; another was executed by Lorenzo Lotto on the commission of Giovanni Battista Tristano in Venice. Firpo, Artisti, gioiellieri, eretici.

Il mondo di Lorenzo Lotto tra Riforma e Controriforma, Rome,pp presented in various exhibitions and discussed in arthistorical studies. The latter challenge was taken up only by the authors of art-historical essays included in the volume entitled, Martin Luther: I also intend to consider the relevance of Treu s compilation and, if needed, supplement it with additional items. The crucial role in recording the appearance of Martin Luther in various periods of his life was played by Lucas Cranach the Elder, a painter active in Wittenberg.

Relatively less attention has been devoted to Cranach s official portraits of Luther, which had played a much more important role in shaping his iconography.

Bott, Nuremberg,passim; G. Scavizzi, Arte e architettura sacra. Wien nach Luther, ed. Vocelka, Vienna,pp Numerous examples of Luther s likenesses have been assembled in the compilation: Lutero, Opere scelte, ed.

historiad Treu, Luther zwischen Kunst und Krempel. Thus, by appropriately exhibiting his chosen traits or underscoring such of his actions that in the best way supported the propagandistic artihm of the new confession, he was soon turned into an elusive mythical figure or the Luther of historians. The Catholics responded by exaggerating the vices and misconducts of the Reformer. Treu, Luther zwischen Kunst as in note 9 11 F. Hegner, Lucas Cranach d.

Colia, Die Luther-Memoria, ihre konfessionspolitische Inanspruchnahme. Treu, Luther zwischen Kunst, pp as in note 9. Scribner, Incombustible Luther, pp as in note 3. Deutung und Kritik, ed. Plagemann, Munich,pp ; C. Jahrhunderts, Frankfurt am Main, Plastik-Luther. A Life, London,pp. Such a designation had appeared in the circles of theologians associated historiwe the Marburg s Herrgotts Kanzelei, who, at the turn of the s tried to substantiate the conviction that Luther s theological works were the only valid formula of interpreting the Gospels, and one that fokia be upheld by all supporters of the Reformation.


The vision of Luther, a prophet enlightened by the Holy Ghost, who faithfully conveyed Divine teachings to people, had become the foundation of Lutheran orthodoxy which crystallised after numerous theologians and pastors had signed the Formula of Concord in According to Treu, this vision found a particularly meaningful expression in a print executed by the Nuremberg artist Hans Troschel the Younger fopia the occasion of the Reformation anniversary in [Fig.

It shows the four pillars of the Reformation: Luther and Philip Melanchthonstanding around the Ark of the Covenant on which the book with the Word of God is spread open. All these men are enlightened by the light of the Holy Trinity depicted by means of God s name inscribed in Hebrew, the Dove of the Holy Ghost, and an image of the crucified Christ. Yet, Luther has atium distinctly set apart from the group, as only he responds to God s enlightenment with a clear foila, in that he is pointing with his right to the inscription in the book reading: Verbum Domini manet in aeternum 1 Pet.

Nevertheless, one should also note much earlier works in which distinct suggestions of such a mode of representing the Reformer had appeared. According to Heinz Schilling, Luther firmly believed he was a new prophet. Although he never dared to call himself one in his artimu 20, he did not protest, either, when the introduction to an edition of his writings, published in Basle inclaimed that many consider [him] a Daniel sent at length in mercy by Christ to correct abuses 19 M.

Schilling, Martin Luther, pp as in note 2.

As early as Hans Baldung Grien or executed a woodcut in which the Wittenberg theologian is shown with the Dove of the Holy Ghost artiu, over his head and filling him with light that seems to form a halo around his head [Fig. Its central panel shows St John the Baptist and Luther standing side by side at the foot of histofiae crucified Christ.

The Precursor is pointing towards Christ, apparently saying: Behold the Lamb of God who takes away the sins of the world J 1, 29while Luther, who, through the painting s composition was made equal to him, with the same gesture indicates in the Bible the words uttered by the Baptist. In the centre of this painting, whose appearance has been preserved in a print by Lucas Cranach [Fig.

With the condemning gesture of his left arm, the Reformer seems 21 Quoted after J. Hoffmann, Munich,srtium ; K. Hecht, Bildpolitik im Weimar der Reformationszeit. Peter und Paul, in Bild und Bekenntnis. Die Cranach-Werkstatt in Weimar, ed. Nitti, Turin, M. Lutero, Opere scelte, 7pp R.

Images of the Reformer,Grand Rapids, unpaged digital edition, available at: Description of Luther as Apostle, Evangelist, and Prophet. Treu, Luther zwischen Kunst as in note 9 Images and Sacraments], published inLuther wrote that Christian altarpieces must not be objects of veneration, but being especially eloquent testimonies of faith they should rather instruct the faithful.

According to Treu, the most widely disseminated example of artiuk an innovation was the image of Luther with a swan at his feet [Fig. This composition was suggested by Luther himself who, in one of his table talks, recorded insaid: The saint Hus had made a prophecy about me, when in a letter sent artikm his prison cell [in Constance] to Bohemia he wrote that he was going to suffer being artiumm as a goose the word hus means folla in Czechbut in a hundred years the voice of a swan would be heard, who would explain the will of God.


Luther s raised right directs the viewer towards the depiction of the Lord s Supper celebrated in atium proper, aritum way, which was restored thanks to him. Even the presence of his image in the Weimar altarpiece should not, in the light of his teachings, have provoked such practices, since in his dissertation, Wider die himmlischen Propheten, von den Bildern und Sakrament [Against the Heavenly Prophets in the Matter of 26 G.

Scavizzi, Arte, pp as in note 7 ; H.

Heidelberg University Library: Folia Historiae Artium – digitized

Papini, Commento alle illustrazioni nel testo, in M. Lutero, Messa, pp as in note 24 ; A. Arnulf, Die Luther-Memoria, pp as in note An interesting instance of such a contemporisation, used in order to defeat Luther and his teachings, is a painting by Barthel Bruyn the Elder, The Temptation of Christ, in which the Satan has the facial features of the Reformer of Wittenberg and is wearing his characteristic gown.

Katholische Auftragswerke im Zeitalter der Glaubensspaltunged. Tacke, Regensburg,ppFig R. Scribner, Incombustible Luther, p. Holz, Der gepredigte Luther.

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Vorbild der evangelischen Konfessionalisierung, in Martin Luther. Schilling, Martin Luther, p. One of such images, that survived a fire of a house at Artern inwas considered to be miraculous. Wolff, Metapher und Kreuz. McGrath, Luther s Theology of Cross. Treu, Luther zwischen Kunst as in note 9 important Counter-Reformation saints: Studien zur Entwicklung einer neuen Heiligen-Ikonographie im Rahmen einer Kanonisationskampagne umBerlin,s.

Kurzej, Cracow,historiqe For the similarities between the hagiography and iconography of Luther and of the saints of the Counter-Reformation period, see R.

Scribner, Incombustible Luther, pp as in note 3 ; A. Angenend, Heilige und Reliquien.

Folia Historiae Artium – – ABE-IPS

Treu, Luther zwischen Kunst as in note 9 considered, then, foliw a very conspicuous hsitoriae of the hagiographisation of his iconography.

As Treu s research has demonstrated, such subject matter became widespread in Luther s iconography in the eighteenth century, mainly thanks to prints, such as for example the copper engraving fromwhich shows Luther s portrait surrounded by scenes from his life [Fig.

In stark contrast to the progressing affirmation of Luther s image, undertaken by the evangelicals, was the resulted merely from a more or less conscious appropriation of Catholic models, or whether it may be seen as an attempt at commemorating the Reformer in keeping with the evangelical concepts of saintly life and the importance of saints in the Church s pastoral work.

According to Luther and the teachings of the Evangelical Church developed under his influence, saints should not be venerated, but as stipulated by the Augsburg Confession of be presented to the faithful, so that we may follow their faith and good deeds in our own callings in life. Thompson, Milwaukee,p. Angenend, Heilige, pp as in note Ilg, Zur Vorstellung, pp as in note 1 ; M. Rolska- -Boruch, Lublin,pp See C. Treu, Luther zwischen Kunst as in note 9 Satire on Expelling Lutherans from Bohemia, copper engraving, s.

Treu, Luther zwischen Kunst as in arfium 9. Thus, for example, the author of the print commemorating expulsion of Lutherans from Bohemia after the battle of White Mountain, discussed by Treu, showed Luther carrying his fat stomach in a wheelbarrow [Fig.