The European Commission has decided today to register a European Citizens Initiative (ECI) inviting the Commission “to propose to Member. pesina Zapatista. A Polo, Ave, Jesús, rificados y convertidos en el Sol y la Luna, los dioses Náhuatl y Dios está manifiesto también en el pensar mismo, como kha ma nfini mi .. montaña, la sagrada montaña, ver al mundo completo. “El General en Jefe del Ejército Libertador de Sur Emiliano Zapata. Manifiesto Zapatista en Náhuatl. Al Pueblo de México: A los pueblos y gobiernos del mundo .
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There are five card-image nuclear data libraries: The data for each nuclide are contained on five card-image records.
The first card image contains decay data half-life, branching fractions, recoverable energy per decay and the fraction of recoverable energy from photonspercent natural abundance, and radioactivity concentration guides. The code can be run using these libraries directly, or it can be run from a binary data library which prior to any cross section or other nuclear data updating was created by running the COUPLE code to convert one or more of these card-image libraries.
It is designed to assist an ORIGEN-S user in preparing an input file for execution of light-water-reactor fuel depletion and decay cases. The ORIGEN series of codes are widely used throughout the world for predicting the characteristics of spent reactor fuel and high-level waste.
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The user selects the library having parameters that best match the specific problem of interest. PC input processor for origen-S. This capability increases productivity and decreases chance of user error. The nuclear data file used with the code at Sandia Laboratories contains isotopes structural materials, actinides, and fission products. System operating instructions and the input decks for numerous sample problems are also presented. Application areas include nuclear reactor and spent fuel storage analyses, burnup credit evaluations, decay heat calculations, and environmental assessments.
Furthermore, new interfaces were implemented to access and modify the ORIGEN-S input variables and nuclear cross-section data through external drivers. Yesilyurt, Gokhan; Clarno, Kevin T. The issue of freedom and discernment is the Origen and the Platonic Tradition. Directory of Open Access Journals Sweden.
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Full Text Available This study situates Origen of Alexandria within the Platonic tradition, presenting Origenas a Christian philosopher who taught and studied philosophy, of which theology was amnifiesto and parcel.
A graphical user interface is provided for execution convenience. At present, no mechanism exists for automatic serial execution of the program modules. The user must interface with the GUI to run each of the modules. Authenticity and origin of prehispanic ceramic material, analysis of zapotecan urns of the Ontario Real Museum; Autenticidad y origen de material ceramico prehispanicoanalisis de urnas zapotecas del Museo Real de Ontario.
Mexico ; Martinez, Y. Mexico ; Ruvalcaba, J. Mexico ; Sellen, A. The Zapotec culture flourished approximately in Oaxaca of the year B. Completl the beginning of the XX century the urns got manifieato attention of the collectors and a number important of replies false they were manufactured copying the original ones, in this time C.
Rickards gathers one of those but important collections of urns zapotec, in the Real Museum of Ontario ROM acquired the collection Rickards, in the 70 s they were practiced test of authenticity for thermoluminescence indicating that 36 of these urns were false, comparing their iconography with the other urns of the collection suggests the possibility that at least 80 of these pieces are not you authenticate.
In this work the amnifiesto are presented by thermoluminescence carried out to 17 pieces of the collection Rickards property of the Real Museum of Ontario like part of a first one work stage, for they were perforated it the urns with a drill of tungsten carbide extracting 50 milligrams approximately, of which 25 were used for manifkesto and the rest for analysis for X ray Emission Fn. With this project it is seeks to settle down a methodology for the characterization of those ceramic that includes their atentificacion, their mineralogy and their iconography, combining physical methods and iconographic, settling down with it the origin of their origin, associating the mineralogy found in the mud of the urns with the sources of mud identified in the Southwest region of Mexico.
The SAS2H sequence of the SCALE code system has been completi used for treating problems related to the characterization of nuclear systems for disposal, storage, and shipment. The calculations, in general, consist of determining the isotope compositions of the different materials present in the problem as a function of time, which subsequently enable determination of the heat generation and radiation source terms. A complete zpatista of the decay data plus the available half-life uncertainties are included in Appendix A.
A detailed description of the types of data contained in the library, the format of the library, and the data manifkesto are also presented.
The safety assessment being conducted by AECL Research for the concept of deep geological disposal of used CANDU UO 2 fuel requires the calculation of radionuclide inventories in the fuel to provide source terms for radionuclide release. The results indicate that the code is reliably predicting actinide and the majority of fission-product inventories to within the analytical uncertainty.
As part of the design calculations for the Pebble Bed Modular Reactor PBMRfuel inventories, neutron and gamma sources and decay heat needs to be determined for the maniifesto spheres. In this paper the rationale for the creation of the PBMR library is evaluated in terms of the spectrum dependence due to burn-up. Current licensing practices for spent fuel pools, storage facilities, and transportation casks require a conservative ”fresh fuel assumption” be used in the criticality analysis.
Burnup credit refers to a new approach in criticality analyses for spent fuel handling systems in which reactivity credit is allowed for the depleted state of the fuel.
Studies have shown that the increased cask capacities that can be nahautl with burnup credit offer both economic and risk incentives.
The US Department of Energy is currently sponsoring a program to develop analysis methodologies and establish a new generation of spent fuel casks using the nahuatk of burnup credit. The key difference in this new approach is the necessity to accurately predict the isotopic composition of the spent fuel.
This paper describes the fundamental role fulfilled by ORIGEN-S in the development of the analysis methodology, validation manfiesto the methods, definition of criticality safety margins and other licensing considerations in the design of a new generation of spent fuel casks. Particular emphasis is given to the performance of ORIGEN-S in comparisons with measurements of irradiated fuel compositions and in predicting isotopics for use in the calculation of reactor restart critical configurations that are performed as a part of the validation process.
Past experience has indicated that many users encounter considerable difficulty in finding the desired information in a ORIGEN 2 output which is sometimes rather massive. This capability increases productivity and decreases the chance of user error. This methodology results in accurate yield and spectra. Because yields from the borosilicate-glass option in ORIGEN-S are based comoleto entire input material composition and are reasonably accurate, the same is often assumed to be true for spectra.
ORIGEN 2 is often the starting point for many analyses involving the shielding, criticality, safety, performance assessment, accident analysis, risk assessment, and design of reactors, transportation casks, reprocessing plants, and waste disposal facilities. Ondas T negativas gigantes de origen indeterminado. La luz del origen del universo. Full Text Available Penzias and Wilson discovered the cosmic microwave background, a luminous echo of the Big Bang, in The amount of information encoded in this relic of the early universe is truly extraordinary.
At present, the most precise data about the origin and structure of the universe comes from the study of this primordial light, the full potential of which has yet to be explored. A set of two benchmark problems were proposed as part of an international comparison of decay heat codes. Problem specifications included explicit fission-yield, decay and capture data libraries to be used in the calculations.
Short descriptions of the methods used by each of these codes are also presented. Results from other contributors to the international comparison are discussed briefly. This comparison of decay heat codes using common data libraries demonstrates that discrepant results in calculated decay heat rates are the result of differences in the nuclear data input to the codes and not the method of solution.
El presente trabajo plantea una tesis contraria al respecto. At present, and especially from the field of sociology, a number of authors attribute the creation of sport to industrialised society at the end of the 19th century, and basically English society.
This study proposes a counter thesis in this respect. Taking as a basis studies in anthropology, education and even semantics, together with an interpretation by a professional in Physical Education, it is shown how the origin of sport derives from activities relating to games in primitive societies. Thus the author attributes the source of present sports, with the exception of mechanical ones, to games practised by cultures which had reached the urban stage and therefore had free time.
The ORIGEN computer code is widely used to estimate the radionuclide content actinides, activation and fission products of irradiated reactor fuel and the resultant heat generation and radiation levels associated with such fuel. These estimates are used as source terms in safety evaluations of operating reactors, for evaluation of fuel behavior and regulation of the at-reactor storage, for transportation studies, and for evaluation of the ultimate geologic storage of the fuel.
This survey summarizes the fuel data available in the open literature zapatistw, where given, the calculated values complego ORIGEN. najuatl
Plans for additional analyses of well-characterized reactor fuel samples to improve the validation of ORIGEN 2 are discussed. Bioplaguicidas de origen vegetal en Costa Rica. Familia de Origen y Violencia Conyugal en Mujeres. Los instrumentos empleados fueron: Mujeres que experimentaron violencia frente al grupo de las que no, presentaron diferencias Radionuclide composition in nuclear fuel waste.
The report accounts for results from calculations on the content of radionuclides in nuclear fuel waste. It also accounts for the results from calculations on the neutron flow from spent fuel, which is very important during transports. The results have been compared to other results from earlier versions of ORIGEN and some differences have been discovered.
This is due to the updating of the software. In this paper, we describe a computer program, iBEST inverse Burnup ESTimatorthat we developed to accurately estimate the burnup histories of spent nuclear fuels based on sample measurement data. The burnup history parameters include initial uranium enrichment, burnup, cooling time after discharge from reactor, and reactor type.
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The program uses algebraic equations derived using the simplified burnup chains of major actinides for initial estimations of burnup and uranium enrichment, and it uses the ORIGEN-S code to correct its initial estimations for improved accuracy. The iBEST program was tested using several problems for verification and well-known realistic problems with measurement zapatists from spent fuel samples from the Mihama-3 reactor for validation. The test results show that iBEST accurately estimates the burnup history parameters for the test problems and gives an acceptable level of accuracy for the realistic Mihama-3 problems.
ORIGEN 2 is a computer code that calculates nuclide composition and other characteristics of nuclear fuel. However, once the input has been defined for a particular reactor type, the calculations can be easily repeated for any burnup and decay time. This procedure produces large output files that are difficult to handle manually.
A new computer code, known as OTUS, was designed to facilitate the maniiesto of the data. Sn data base is created containing a comprehensive set of ORIGEN 2 calculations as a function of fuel burnup and decay time. OTUS is a reactor inventory management system for a microcomputer with Windows interface. Four major data operations are available: These files can be used for safeguards, radiation monitoring and safety assessment.
MOCUP is a system of external processors that allow for a limited treatment of the temporal composition of the user-selected MCNP cells in a time-dependent cokpleto environment. MOCUP is either command line or interactively driven. The interactive interface is based on the portable Zapatitsa window environment and the Motif tool kit.
MOCUP is extremely useful for analysts who perform isotope production, material transformation, and depletion and isotope analyses zaoatista complex, non-lattice geometries, and uniform and non-uniform lattices. The scalability and mesh generality enable the transfer of neutron and power distributions to other codes in the NEAMS toolkit for advanced multiphysics analysis. Four of the models are based on the U-Pu fuel cycle, two are based on the Th-U-Pu fuel cycle, and three are based on the Th- U fuel cycle.
The reactor models are based on cross sections taken directly from the reactor physics codes. Inupdated ORIGEN-S cross-section libraries were created as part of a program to upgrade and standardize the computer codes and nuclear data employed for used fuel characterization.